The cyber space is altogether different space from the physical space and so are the characteristics of people travelling in it Jaishankar, 2008. Thomas , Dennis Fester , and Hugh Nugent. Psychological aspects of cyberspace: Theory, research, applications. As technology provides new ways for us to interact as citizens as well as consumers how will technology transform service delivery, governance and civic participation. Classics of criminology 2nd ed. This condemnable behaviour is originally learned through the procedure of imitation, which occurs when persons learn actions and behaviour by watching and listening to others. From a criminological perspective, problems also arise in regard to explana- tions of the causes and contexts of such crimes, and the well-known traditional criminological explanations are not fully applicable for explaining and under- standing cybercrime victimisation Jaishankar, 2008;Leukfeldt and Yar, 2016.
His areas of research include computer hacking, malware, and the role played by technology and computer-mediated communications in facilitating crime and deviance. Many of the high level theories of crime are mainly sociological, geographical or political in scope, whereas theories of crime that consider socialisation and individual differences are those which are most suited to psychological discussion. Nevertheless, there is a considerable lack of empirical research in the area, with most writings based on theoretical or anecdotal accounts, despite many calls by leaders in the field for more empirically sound methods. I felt the need for a separate theory of cyber crimes because the general theoretical explanations were found to be inadequate as an overall explanation for the phenomenon of cyber crimes Jaishankar 2008. Introduction The scientific study of the causes of delinquency and crime has been historically guided by theory.
Cyberspace presents an exciting new frontier for criminologists. This chapter considers how online distribution of child pornography is different to offline distribution. Chapter 7: Internet Child Pornography: A Stepping Stone to Contact Offences? A good theory is said to provide a foundational lens through which to interpret and understand the manifestation of a behavior. Owing to the overlap between traits and the broader constellation of personality, it is sometimes difficult to clearly identify a criminological theory as either a trait or personality theory. Some tentative explanations for the motives of virus writers are put forward, similarities with the psychology of vandalism are explored, in order to determine if similar theories might explain both phenomena. The effects on the victim are also considered, including the phenomenon of victim blaming, where others place partial blame on the victim for the criminal event. People sometimes use it to act out unpleasant need or emotion like harassing other people, sexualizing children and women, hurling abuses through texts and symbols or it allows people to be brutally honest and open about personal issues that they might fear discussing in face -to-face encounters.
Space transition theory argues that, people behave differently when they move from one space to another. Boston: Northeastern University Press; Jacoby, J. This article will detail the fundamental issues and problems facing researchers involved in the young discipline of cyber criminology, ranging from definitional to methodological problems. Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory. Prevalence rates of the phenomena are provided, as are descriptions of some of the techniques used during cyberbullying and cyberstalking attacks.
Psychological aspects of cyberspace: Theory, research, applications. In that case their actions could be explained with choice theory. With the increasing usage of the cyberspace, felons have found new chances to victimise their marks on a whole new platform. Jaishankar with its website www. The psychology of the identity thief and fraudster is examined, based on comparisons to similar offline offenders. Cybercrime: Vandalizing the information society.
They are also those who have elicited the greatest quantity ofpsychological academic literature. However, these theoretical explanations were found to be inadequate as an overall explanation for the phenomenon of cyber crimes, because cyber crimes are different from crimes of physical space. Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content on this page. The methods used by terrorists online will are outlined, including both an examination of the possibility of using the internet for a large scale attack, and using the internet for more conventional activities such as recruitment and fundraising. Therefore, from the features of low self-denial, those with low degrees of self-denial are likely to take part in aberrant behaviour both on and offline because of their desire of immediate satisfaction. Security Journal, 26 4 , 383-402 Patchin, Justin W.
Being attached to a school club or church group, for example, may prevent you from committing crime. Sony faces further security woes. Global Threat Report: First half Trends. It is more hard to use this theory to cybercrime because the wrongdoer and victim do non needfully hold to run into for the offense to happen. Common types of online identity theft and fraud are examined as are the reasons why systems and individuals find themselves vulnerable to such attacks. Chapter 12: Crime in Virtual Worlds: Should Victims Feel Distressed? The potential effects of an attack on victims is also considered as is how terrorist activity online can be prevented.
The survey besides found that low self-denial does hold an consequence on package buccaneering and that societal larning theory steps i. Broad-ranging and foundational edited volume with detailed discussion on a variety of cybercrimes and legal responses. These include hacking and malware development. Citizens are disengaging with the political process as they perceive their ability to effect change is diminishing. The chapter clarifies the distinctions between different typesof malware, and provides a brief history of some of the most famous malware programs which have been developed. This chapter describes these types of virtual crimes, and determines if they could and should be considered criminal events. It is also useful for studies in network security and information security.
The nature of the response is multi-faceted. ZeuS: A persistent criminal enterprise. Chapter 9 looks at cyberbullying and cyberstalking. Wong, Ken and Bill Farquhar. There are 3 categories of strains: 1 Failure to achieve positively valued goals, 2 Remove or threaten to remove the achievement of positively valued goals, and 3 Present or threaten to present negatively valued stimuli.
How each of these responsibilities and activities may be applied to cybercrime cases is examined and a determination made as to what extent forensic psychology has been involved in cybercrime cases to date. Descriptions are provided of some of the techniques used during cyberbullying and cyberstalking attacks, and differences between online and traditional stalking and bullying areconsidered. Virtual reality and computer mediated communications challenge the traditional discourse of criminology, introducing new forms of deviance, crime, and social control McKenzie 1996. In Criminology: An interdisciplinary approach. Phillip K Dick's work has furnished criminologists with the concept of pre-crime McCulloch and Pickering, 2009;McCulloch and Wilson, 2016;Zedner, 2007a. Many considered switching to alternative gaming consoles and networks as their trust in Sony and the Playstation Network had been adversely affected GamePolitics.