Signal Words Signal words are the academic terms that signal to the reader or speaker the purpose of the writing or utterance. Next, explain that the items have some differences. As I work with the students on the rug, I still monitor those students working independently and I take the time to walk around the tables and give students feedback. Erick has worked with thousands of teachers across the nation to help them improve their instructional practice and increase academic achievement for all students. Note the sentence starters include a variety of academic terms, some at higher levels than others. Sometimes teachers get stuck thinking that their students have to write a full blown compare and contrast essay including all of the steps of the writing process every time they write.
Add more similarities in as many sentences as are needed. Therefore, some students need more support than others with the functions and forms of English. The Common Core wants students to compare and contrast similar stories and asks students to make connections among texts. Plus, it can be used over and over again with different topics. You may use the transition word first.
Language Functions To begin the discussion on sentence frames, starters and signal words, it is helpful to explore the notion of language functions and their related forms. Don't forget to indent your paragraph. Texts can provide you with ideas of complex or compound sentences as well; remove the key vocabulary and look for the structure of the sentences. I review with students a checklist that I created about whether we met our objective or not and praise their hard work. However, sentence starters only begin the idea, and students must complete the idea from there. Note the sentence can be filled in with any content; this differs from closed sentences that often have only a few possibilities.
I still require them to do the hard work on their own: thinking and writing sentences that demonstrate their comparing and contrasting. Adverbs Similarly, likewise, in the same way, also Phrases Like, alike, similar, equal, comparable Verbs Compare to, resemble, fit, match, mirror, reinforce, reflect etc. I am also looking for them to use complete sentences in their asking and answering the questions. In writing, I can utilize a Venn diagram to compare and contrast two things. Rug Activity: I start with students on the rug and share the objective.
The conjunctions though, although and but are also possible. Signal words include transition words such as however, therefore and despite, and words and phrases specific to particular language functions. It walks students through the writing process with scaffolding each step of the way. A dependent conjunction joins a dependent clause to an independent clause. Similarly to sentence frames and starters, students can be encouraged or required to build these words into their oral and written responses.
Erick Herrmann is an educational consultant specialized in teaching English learners, and he runs. Each language function has related forms, or of varying complexity. I have them repeat the objective with the sentence: I can compare and contrast different versions of Cinderella stories. You can also use topics that reinforce what students are learning about at this grade level, such as the weather, seasons and nature. To help students with their thinking and organization, I will be using a Venn diagram. All of my 3rd grade students — even my more advanced and gifted students — benefited from additional scaffolding when writing any essay, but especially a compare and contrast essay. Conclude your paragraph by reminding your reader that the items you are writing about have some similarities and some differences.
No To help students at all language proficiency levels incorporate higher levels of academic language into their speech and writing, teachers can incorporate the use of sentence frames, sentence starters and signal words with students at a variety of proficiency levels. After students brainstorm similarities and differences for the topic they will be writing their essay over, provide students with a scaffolded rough draft using paragraph frames similar to the ones in the previous section. Next, I dismiss the students back to their seats where I demonstrate briefly how they will be using the Venn diagram. For my students to use the academic language in writing, it is necessary for them to have the experience of using the words orally. I am choosing the story of Cinderella because it is a favorite fairytale among children.
Additionally, because of adults' capacity to understand more abstract concepts, you can incorporate essay topics about ethics, values and social issues. A prepositional phrase normally comes at the beginning of the sentence if the phrase is an adverb. My students benefit from using , therefore I am providing them with a template to get them started with their writing. You must also pay attention to the structure of your sentences. For students to be college- and career-ready, they must gain academic language proficiency.
You can also use this to help differentiate — provide more scaffolding for the students that need it, while your advanced students may only have the topic sentences scaffolded for them — or maybe even no scaffolding at all. In my short lecture, I am offering an entry point into the lesson and more importantly emphasizing how they are free to choose the key details of the narratives they want to compare and contrast. This leaves out a very important step — the scaffolded essay. Following are some strategies for teaching the compare and contrast essay. Sentence frames, starters and signal words can help them to be more successful in learning both content and academic language.
The following academic language and sentence frames are associated with the language function of compare and contrast. Do not leave extra white spaces or line spaces. Note: Be sure your paragraph looks like the one to the right. Academic language is much more than just the vocabulary of the subject area being taught. These can be dissected and shared with students. I am looking for students to be referring back to their story maps to complete the Venn diagrams. Notes A transitional adverb goes between separate sentences.