In this article, the author provides a sample research proposal and a set of instructions that the beginning researcher should find helpful. Provide basic background information, why you are writing this paper, and what they can expect as a result of reading it. Using an alpha error rate of 0. Conclusions The aim of your protocol is to provide a comprehensive guide to your project so interested parties understand all the relevant details. An analysis and comparison of data over the period from June 2006 through to June 2010 against data collected for the period ending June 1993 forms the basis of this research.
It is your responsibility to secure additional funding for expenses beyond that allocated by the course. For example, 'As has been argued, although concepts of control and attributional style have been measured in people with Parkinson's disease, the impact of these on psychological outcome is still unclear. When will the results be fed back to participants? Depending on your subject, your referencing may involve in-text citations or footnotes. However, once the study is launched, the protocol should not be altered during the progression of the study or trials. Unlike essay composition, writing a clinical paper requires following specific steps in order to clearly describe the research subject, investigation techniques and findings.
Background and significance The purpose of the background and significance section is to lay out the rationale for the proposed research project and to summarize currently available data in the literature that is relevant to the project. It is advantageous to choose an objective, reliable and highly validated outcome in order to limit bias. You should approach writing a research proposal in the same way you would tackle any important project — do your background preparation, get the right team around you, make a plan and, finally, maintain your enthusiasm and determination to succeed. For continuous outcomes you need to have a mean value for the gold standard treatment and hypothesize a difference for the alternative treatment. It is important to understand the steps in developing a research protocol in order to perform an appropriate study and obtain reliable results. Think logistically about the practicalities of your research and indicate that you have thought things through. Review of the proposal The proposal will be read by one of the academic staff, and will be discussed at a proposals review meeting in October.
A graphic outline of the study design and procedures using a flow diagram must be provided. It should stand on its own, and not refer the reader to points in the project description. Example Naturally, the scope of this project is limited. Even today, many of the proposals at post-graduate evaluation committees and application proposals for funding are substandard. PandaTip: This will make doing your research proposal and future research a lot easier. Clinical papers are typically authored by the primary investigators in a particular study, with the objective of publishing the work in a scholarly journal.
Robson 2002 suggests regarding the reader of your protocol as a cross between an intelligent layperson and a generalist in the discipline and this seems about right in terms of the tone of your protocol. It is an independent committee that consists of physicians, dentists, statisticians, and members of the community. The purpose of the background and significance chapter is to justify the study you are proposing. This includes proposed methods, overall study design, logistics, a schedule or timeline and other aspects of what you will be doing if the project is approved. Abstract The well-written abstract is the single most important part of the proposal. We recognise that you are likely still developing your research topic.
On the other hand, if your proposal is geared toward a general audience, it might be a good idea to explain medical concepts or include helpful diagrams. Please outline any plans for service user involvement later in the project. Conclusion The most difficult stage of conducting a research project is the preparation of a protocol that results in a short yet comprehensive document that clearly summarizes the project. Research Methods The proposal should outline your research methods, explaining how you are going to conduct your research. If you are trying to compare two interventions for a certain disease, after performing a thorough literature search, you have to ask yourself the following questions: 1 Are there already multiple case series published on that topic? Hypotheses should be backed up by the preceding literature review. The introduction 3 or 4 pages states what the research topic is and why it is important.
The title should sum up the project. One effective way to find errors in grammar is to read your paper aloud to yourself. Look up the guidelines and formatting requirements before you begin. Additionally, you can use techniques like blocking and stratification in order to avoid random imbalances in small randomized trials. This will vary hugely depending on your subject. A proper title will use relevant scientific terms and not include jargon.
These research papers will need to include sections like Hypothesis or Research Question , Previous Findings, Method, Limitations, Results, Discussion, and Application. Abstract The proposal should include a concise statement of your intended research of no more than 100 words. What could be the after-effects of your project? What are you are proposing to do? A proper citation will enable the readers to follow-up any reference of interest. This leads to the fundamental pieces of the research endeavor: Question, objective, hypothesis, experimental tools to test the hypothesis, methodology, and data analysis. The proposal will need to be tailored to your audience, who may be academic supervisors, an organisation or an external funding body, but many of the principles of writing a research proposal remain consistent. The children from rich families attend private primary schools whose learning environment is conducive and stimulating, while those from poor families attend public primary schools, which are often crowded and with poor facilities. Work at this stage can mean one less thing to do when you are approaching the submission stage.
Common Mistakes Common Pitfalls to Avoid Incorporating insufficient elements regarding proposed studies and inadequate explanation for the implication of the problem must be shunned as well as suggesting far more work than can be practically done during the study period. It is recognized only when a null hypothesis is rejected. This is where you explain how and where you plan to carry out your research. A general timetable for the project is given in the. Writing your proposal Research funding applications are generally highly structured and are split into sections that will vary by funder and funding stream. Is there any eventuality in which data collection period might be extended? Your focus is shaped by your audience: If you're trying to persuade a group of doctors and other health care personnel, for example, you may not have to include a lot of the medical basics or define terms they probably already know.