The role of alcohol in domestic fires is particularly important. Science 250 December 21 :1678-1683. Notgrass in press the Effects of Child Sexual Abuse on Women's Sexual and Psychological Functioning. Child Abuse Prediction: Policy Implications. Wolfe 1975 Psychological preparation for surgical pediatric patients: The effects on children's and parents' stress responses and adjustment. Dynamics in the families-of-origin were also explored, as these related or contributed to the effects from the incest.
International Human Rights Clinic; National Asian Paci c American Women's Forum U. However, presents some of the commonly cited risk factors for chid maltreatment, divided according to the ecological levels of the developmental-ecological model described above factors relating to the macrosystem are not included as they are likely to vary significantly between societies and cultures. Children of parents with mental illness 2: Personal and clinical perspectives. The nondepressed maltreated children were also more likely to report that they felt more cared about by their supports than the depressed children. These findings have been confirmed in observational studies showing that aggressive and hostile behavior is exhibited by various members of families of aggressive children.
Widom 1991a also examined the role of placement experiences in relation to delinquency and violence. Hansen 1984 The violent juvenile offender: An empirical portrait. Psychological consequences range from chronic low self-esteem to severe dissociative states. The proportion of cases rated as abuse decreased from 22. Foa 1989 Post-traumatic stress in sexually abused, physically abused, and nonabused children. Deprivational dwarfism, a medical term applied to children of small stature whose physical Page 211 growth is impaired by the absence of nutritional requirements, is another type of child neglect associated with some young children.
Additionally, as stated above, although there is a statistical association between these factors and child abuse and neglect, this does not mean that these factors cause child abuse and neglect. Child protection authorities use specific risk assessment instruments to determine if a child is at risk of maltreatment but all professionals who work with families can benefit from a broad understanding of the factors that may place children at risk of harm, the factors that can protect them from harm, and the ways in which these risk and protective factors interact. An older child may use drugs or alcohol, try to run away, or abuse others. Jang 1983 Profiles of chronically violent delinquents: Empirical test of an integrated theory. At younger ages, boys had greater risk of minor physical abuse, while girls again had greater risk of sexual abuse.
Neglect cases may occur at any point of a child's development but are often associated with early childhood, when they are more likely to be discovered by health professionals, educators, and child welfare workers. The same event may be perceived by different individuals as irrelevant, benign, positive, or threatening and harmful. Physical abuse involves non-accidental harming of a child by, for example, burning, beating, or breaking bones. In addition, the duration such as the duration of an illness or intensity such as the level of drug or alcohol abuse can make it more or less likely that a child will be at risk for abuse. Ehlert 1977 144 foster children. Journal of Family Violence 4 1 :77-94.
Research is also needed to determine whether certain types of problem behaviors represent discrete behaviors with different etiologies. The lack of attention to gender differences may result from the small number of male victims of sexual abuse in most studies and lower rates of reporting of childhood sexual abuse in males. Medieval laws in governing child abandonment, as for example the , often prescribed that the person who had taken up the child was entitled to the child's service as a slave. Over one hundred and twenty thousand orphans not all of whom were intentionally abandoned were shipped west on railroad cars, where families agreed to foster the children in exchange for their use as farmhands, household workers, etc. Research has suggested a relationship between child maltreatment and a variety of short- and long-term consequences, but considerable uncertainty and debate remain about the effects of child victimization on children, adolescents, and adults. These mothers were detached and unresponsive to their children's bids for care and attention. Child and Youth Services Review 3:193-212.
Children living through abuse and violence, unnecessarily suffer the ill effects of this trauma for the rest of their lives. The authors present a chart review of 125 children, 6 years of age and under, who presented between early 1981 and mid 1983 to an acute care hospital because of sexual abuse. Using rank ordering and comparison with mean and median rates for the other countries, U. Studies have generally not examined whether the results are due to exposure to parental violence, the effects of confounding variables such as child rejection, limited caretaking skills, and parental in- Page 217 volvement, or other forms of family conflict associated with a dysfunctional home environment. In these stories, the children seldom find adoptive parents, but malicious monsters, such as ogres and witches; outwitting them, they find treasure enough to solve their poverty. Limitations of the research The evidence on risk and protective factors for maltreatment is far from definitive.
Sexual abuse has also sometimes been associated with the onset of sexual activity in middle childhood. The latter often leaves the girl child vulnerable to stepfathers. Child Abuse and Neglect 13:313-408. While child abandonment occurs in children newborn to age 17, abandonment of children under the age of 1 appears to be most common. In most cases, children who are abused or neglected suffer greater emotional than physical damage. Be alert to any of the following changes: Signs of Physical Abuse: Any injury bruise, burn, fracture, abdominal or head injury that cannot be explained Signs of Sexual Abuse: Fearful behavior nightmares, depression, unusual fears, attempts to run away ; abdominal pain, bedwetting, urinary tract infection, genital pain or bleeding, sexually transmitted disease; extreme sexual behavior that seems inappropriate for the child's age Signs of Emotional Abuse: Sudden change in self-confidence; headaches or stomachaches with no medical cause; abnormal fears, increased nightmares or attempts to run away Signs of Emotional Neglect: Failure to gain weight especially in infants , desperately affectionate behavior, voracious appetite and stealing food Risk Factors A combination of individual, relational, community, and societal factors contribute to the risk of child maltreatment and abuse. This would seem particularly important given that the number of reported cases of child neglect far surpasses those of physical abuse in national statistics.