As it crosses the zygomatic process, it is covered by the Auricularis anterior muscle, and by a dense fascia; it is crossed by the temporal and zygomatic branches of the facial nerve and one or two veins, and is accompanied by the auriculotemporal nerve, which lies immediately behind it. The branches of the external carotid artery may be divided into four sets. The Cricothyroid Branch ramus cricothyreoideus is small and runs transversely across the cricothyroid membrane, communicating with the artery of the opposite side. Other cerebral arteries are also given off by the internal carotid artery. As you can see, this branch comes medially off the external carotid artery — and kind of posteriorly. Early warnings can be seen in the form of transient ischemic attacks, forerunners of a full-blown stroke. The Transverse Facial Artery a.
The anterior facial vein lies lateral to the artery, and takes a more direct course across the face, where it is separated from the artery by a considerable interval. One, the posterior meningeal, enters the cranium through the jugular foramen; a second passes through the foramen lacerum; and occasionally a third through the canal for the hypoglossal nerve. The Pharyngeal Branches rami pharyngei are three or four in number. It passes downward and backward over the hypoglossal nerve, and enters the substance of the muscle, in company with the accessory nerve. The Prevertebral Branches are numerous small vessels, which supply the Longi capitis and colli, the sympathetic trunk, the hypoglossal and vagus nerves, and the lymph glands; they anastomose with the ascending cervical artery. The incisor branch is continued forward beneath the incisor teeth as far as the middle line, where it anastomoses with the artery of the opposite side; the mental branch escapes with the nerve at the mental foramen, supplies the chin, and anastomoses with the submental and inferior labial arteries.
In cases in which severe and symptomatic occlusion has occurred as the result of atherosclerotic plaque, carotid endarterectomy can be performed to remove the plaque and attempt to open up more robust flow to the anterior circulation. Facial Artery: As the name suggest this artery supplies the face. In the mouth, these vessels are placed one on either side of the frenulum linguæ. The Hyoid Branch ramus hyoideus; suprahyoid branch runs along the upper border of the hyoid bone, supplying the muscles attached to it and anastomosing with its fellow of the opposite side. Parietal Branch: Larger than the frontal, curves upward and backward on the side of the head, lying superficial to the temporal fascia, and anastomosing with its fellow of the opposite side, and with the posterior auricular and occipital arteries. The carotids supply the anterior circulation, including most of the forebrain except for the occipital lobe and inferior surface of the temporal lobe.
External carotid artery is the artery that supplies originated blood to head. It supplies the Occipitalis and the scalp in this situation and anastomoses with the occipital artery. External Carotid Artery Branches Mnemonics: You have difficulty learning the names of branches of external carotid artery, you should take advantage of mnemonics given below. The superior thyroid artery a. The tortuous bends and sites of branching such as the bifurcation of the common carotid artery into the internal and external carotids produce turbulence of blood flow and are sites where atherosclerosis can occur. The internal carotid is responsible for supplying blood to the nearest brain hemisphere with the help of the basilar artery. On the cheek it distributes branches which anastomose with the infraorbital; after supplying the lacrimal sac and Orbicularis oculi, it ends by anastomosing with the dorsal nasal branch of the ophthalmic artery.
The deficiency is then compensated for by enlargement of one of the neighboring arteries. The external carotid artery brings blood to structures outside the skull, primarily the face, and the internal carotid to structures inside the skull, including the brain. It runs along the infraorbital groove and canal with the infraorbital nerve, and emerges on the face through the infraorbital foramen, beneath the infraorbital head of the Quadratus labii superioris. As the artery travels upwards, it supplies: In the carotid triangle Superior thyroid artery, arising from its anterior aspect Ascending pharyngeal artery - arising from medial, or deep, aspect Lingual artery - arising from its anterior aspect Facial artery - arise from its anterior aspect Occipital artery - arising from its posterior aspect Posterior auricular artery - arising from posterior aspect The external carotid artery terminates as two branches: Maxillary artery Superficial temporal artery. At its origin, this artery is closer to the skin and more medial than the internal carotid, and is situated within the. The Deep Auricular Artery a.
The external carotid artery is relatively straight, but the internal carotid artery twists and turns, increasing the likelihood of blockages. As it crosses the zygomatic process, it is covered by the Auricularis anterior muscle, and by a dense fascia; it is crossed by the temporal and zygomatic branches of the facial nerve and one or two veins, and is accompanied by the auriculotemporal nerve, which lies immediately behind it. Ascending Pharyngeal Artery: Just superior to the bifurcation of common carotid artery, under stylopharyngeus muscle, a small branch appear and travel to supply pharynx. Its third, or horizontal, portion lies between the Hyoglossus and Genioglossus. It is distributed to the upper part of the pharynx and to the auditory tube, sending into the tympanic cavity a small branch which anastomoses with the other tympanic arteries. Along the upper border of the posterior belly of and deep towards the , it travels upwards and backwards parallel towards the occipital artery.
It then changes its course and runs vertically upward, pierces the fascia connecting the cranial attachment of the Trapezius with the Sternocleidomastoideus, and ascends in a tortuous course in the superficial fascia of the scalp, where it divides into numerous branches, which reach as high as the vertex of the skull and anastomose with the posterior auricular and superficial temporal arteries. This loop permits the free movements of the hyiod bone. The second or pterygoid portion runs obliquely forward and upward under cover of the ramus of the mandible and insertion of the Temporalis, on the superficial very frequently on the deep surface of the Pterygoideus externus; it then passes between the two heads of origin of this muscle and enters the fossa. The ascending course of the vertebral artery through the transverse foramina of C6 to C3 vertebrae and over the posterior arch of the atlas places it at increased risk for injury in the setting of fracture or dislocation spinal injury see Fig. Crossing the under surface of the sphenoid the sphenopalatine artery ends on the nasal septum as the posterior septal branches; these anastomose with the ethmoidal arteries and the septal branch of the superior labial; one branch descends in a groove on the vomer to the incisive canal and anastomoses with the descending palatine artery. Its third, or horizontal, portion lies between the Hyoglossus and Genioglossus.
It supplies the muscle, and anastomoses with the masseteric branches of the external maxillary and with the transverse facial artery. The anterior branch, the larger, crosses the great wing of the sphenoid, reaches the groove, or canal, in the sphenoidal angle of the parietal bone, and then divides into branches which spread out between the dura mater and internal surface of the cranium, some passing upward as far as the vertex, and others backward to the occipital region. Next up, we've got the lingual artery. It occasionally gives off a zygomaticoörbital branch, which runs along the upper border of the zygomatic arch, between the two layers of the temporal fascia, to the lateral angle of the orbit. They typically have a good prognosis, though anticoagulation with oral warfarin is administered for several months to prevent thromboembolic complications. The Middle Temporal Artery a. The Glandular Branches rami glandulares; submaxillary branches consist of three or four large vessels, which supply the submaxillary gland, some being prolonged to the neighboring muscles, lymph glands, and integument.