Remember that the main reason teachers assign research papers is to test your ability to find, digest, and make sense of specific information about a topic. In paraphrase, the meaning must be exactly the same as the original. The use of hops did not appear in European beer-making until the 12th century, and it was resisted by many. Sometimes you will hear a higher limit such as seven or thirteen words, but if you never use more than two words in a row you will always avoid violating any higher limit. This means that students need to set time aside to brainstorm, pre write, plan, draft, and then revise, revise, and revise. Use your genius insight to pick out the essential two or three lines that best convey what you want to say. Lynne Truss attributes an early form of the question mark to Alcuin of York.
Your outline should consist of the controlling idea thesis of the article and the key ideas, in the order in which they appear. Quotation means placing a source's words in quotation marks and using them exactly as you found them, whereas paraphrasing means putting borrowed ideas or information into your own words. Quotations, paraphrases, and summaries serve many purposes. Our version is that he ignores it. Quotation marks are used to indicate either a quotation of someone or the title of a s … maller work.
He said 'get off my lawn! There are many ways to take notes—from jotting down single words or phrases to photocopying entire articles. Commonplace literary allusions do not require quotation marks and do not constitute plagiarism: under the slings and arrows of outrageous term paper assignments you may freely visit the sins of the professor upon the teaching assistants, without quoting either Shakespeare or the Bible. How do I Write a Summary? When you summarize a passage, you focus on restating only the main idea in your own words. Use single quotation marks to mark off a quotation within a quotation. If you were to say that John said he's going to use the truck tonight, … it means that the essence of what he said was that he was going to use the truck.
A good paraphrase goes further. Don't quote an emo song to express your sadness. To make sure you are not plagiarizing unintentionally, think about and jot down the source's main points. Paraphrase the quote if the words are less important than the idea. If material you want to delete comes at the beginning of a new sentence, you still need to include the period from the last sentence, followed by the ellipsis, and then the remainder of the quote.
Example: Cell biology is an area of science that focuses on the structure and function of cells Smith 15. In some cases the source that should be identified is someone other than the author. You shorten condense the most important idea or ideas in the source material and express them in your own words. Paraphrase at first takes time, but it gets easier with practice. Introduction: Read a tutorial that takes about 10 minutes to complete Good writing takes time. Occasionally, you may need to clarify technical language or explain an aphorism, a proverb, or other saying that states a principle, offers an insight, or teaches a point. Now, take out the original passage, and check your rendition with the original to make sure that your version accurately expresses all the essential information in a new form.
Then, write your paraphrase without looking at the original. If students leave their essay to the last minute, they tend to become overwhelmed by the writing task and panic by looking for an alternative. The first, demonstrated above, is to substitute synonyms for the original words and phrases wherever possible. In reporting, they summarize news stories for the viewer. In committee, group, or teamwork, imagination and creativity are valuable, but the ability to summarize is even more so. Brevity is the soul of wit.
They draw attention to themselves and away from your ideas, so keep them to a minimum, and keep them short. None of these variations may contradict the meaning of the original. As before, a parenthetical or footnote citation should follow this passage to acknowledge your source of information. It is much harder for the reader to flip back and forth, and there is no reason for endnotes any more. If you have truly understood the source you are summarizing, you should be able to explain each point from memory. There are four ways to integrate a spot quotation.
Writers frequently intertwine summaries, paraphrases, and quotations. In the first sentence, identify the article or essay you are summarizing by title, enclosed in quotation marks and the author by name, if known. Just be sure to be consistent. Note the omission of the comma in this case also. The most popular writing style guides include , , and. Brief in-text citations point the reader to more complete information in the works cited list at the end of the paper. If what you hand in consists of a string of quotations, your paper will demonstrate only the first of these three skills.
There are therefore four periods in a row, which indicate an end of a sentence and an ellipsis. Perhaps he attempted to justify ideas that were only slightly incompatible, but he could not justify ideas that were very incompatible, so he ignored them. This is plagiarism, which is unethical and even illegal in some cases. Paraphrased passage: In the first season of The Sopranos, Tony Soprano's mobster activities are more threatened by members of his biological family than by agents of the federal government. Because Krugman is an expert in economics, these ideas are his and should be cited as such. Anything else can be paraphrased.