These are rectified by the enumerator. Each descriptive statistic summarizes multiple discrete data points using a single number. Tabular presentation enables the reader to follow quickly than textual presentation. Moreover, due to a high level of standardisation of quantitative methods, it is easy to make comparisons of findings. Secondly, coding frame is developed by listing the possible answers to each question and assigning code numbers or symbols to each of them which are the indicators used for coding.
Poor quality data typically result in incorrect and unreliable data mining results. It is also a good source of preservation of research work for the future reference. For open-ended questions, however, post-coding is necessary. One such standard method is to code in the margin with a colored pencil. Empirical research is perfect when we have the proof which explains that few variables generate a change on other variables in some way or the other. The tabular form of such classification is known as statistical series, which may be inclusive or exclusive.
Qualitative: quantitative measurement of few characteristics which are explained in quantities is nothing but the quantitative research. In analytical research, a researcher has to avail data which already exists and has to make an accurate evaluation. Determining causation is a difficult thing to do, and it is a common mistake to assert a cause-and-effect relationship when the study methodology does not support this assertion. . It is an original contribution to the existing stock of knowledge making for its advancement.
The Importance of Research Methodology: Designing a methodology is necessary for the difficulty which is going to be solved and the researcher has to do this thing. One of the best methods of checking for accuracy is to use a specialized computer program that cross-checks double-entered data for discrepancies. Transcription may not be necessary when only simple tables are required and the number of respondents are few. End Matter — The end matter of the report must contain an appendices in respect of all technical terms and data used in the report and must end with a bibliography. Although causality may seem to be implied in this situation, it is important to note that on a statistical level, correlation does not imply causation. The practical utility of research study depends heavily on the way it is presented to those who are expected to act on the basis of research findings. Data collection is a process of collecting information from all the relevant sources to find answers to the research problem, test the hypothesis and evaluate the outcomes.
It is the science which studies about carried out procedures of research like describing the research work, explaining the research work and also predicting. There are different types of editing. Thirdly, after preparing the sample frame the gradual process of fitting the answers to the questions must be begun. Its main objective is to give a work plan about research. The former is the way of, grouping the variables, say, quantifying the variables in cohesive groups, while the latter groups the data on the basis of attributes or qualities.
Analytical: the surveys and fact-finding investigations of distinct types come under descriptive research. The former is the way of making many more than two groups on the basis of some quality or attributes while the latter is the classification into two groups on the basis of presence or absence of a certain quality. No responses to specific questions —The pattern of responses may indicate that the respondent did not understand or follow the instructions. Module 5: Data Preparation and Analysis Preparing Data After data collection, the researcher must prepare the data to be analyzed. For primary data, write primary data.
This means that, while applying inferential statistics to data, the researcher is coming to conclusions about the population at large. Not all of these steps occur in every market research study. Main body or text — The main text must contain an introduction, summary of findings, main report and conclusion. Whatever method is adopted, one should see that coding errors are altogether eliminated or reduced to the minimum level. Research report is a written document containing key aspects of research project. Essentially it is the procedure by which the researchers go about their work of describing, evaluating and predicting phenomenon. Organizing the data correctly can save a lot of time and prevent mistakes.
Smaller and simpler tables may be presented in the text while the large and complex table may be placed at the end of the chapter or report. A table should not merely repeat information covered in the text. No matter how well a researcher designs the study, there always exists a degree of error in the results. Data reduction involves winnowing out the irrelevant from the relevant data and establishing order from chaos and giving shape to a mass of data. Research Methodology — is a way to systematically solve a research problem. Coding is done by using a code book, code sheet, and a computer card.
Research Definition — Research is a careful investigation or inquiry specifically through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge. It presents the frequency of occurrences of certain categories. By convention, the dependent variable is presented in the rows and the independent variable in the columns. Main Report Central Part of Report : i Statement of objectives ii Methodology and research design iii Types of data and its sources iv Sampling decisions v Data collection methods vi Data collection tools vii Fieldwork viii Analysis and interpretation including tables, charts, figures, etc. In other words, coding involves two important operations; a deciding the categories to be used and b allocating individual answers to them. So what is involved in data preparation? Coding of Data Coding is necessary for efficient analysis and through it the several replies may be reduced to a small number of classes which contain the critical information required for analysis. One must employ a suitable format to create desirable impression with clarity.