Criminology is the study of why individuals engage or commit crimes and the reasons as to why they behave in certain ways in different situations Hagan, 2010. Classical theorists were trying to decrease punishment and obtain equal justice for all. Classical theorists were trying to decrease punishment and obtain equal justice for all. Criminology became popular during the 19th century as an aspect of social development wherein the public attempted to identify the character of misdemeanours and develop more valuable techniques of criminal treatment and deterrence. General or social disincentive is aimed at the society at big. They were against the use of arbitrary powers of Judges.
The Classical School emphasizes that people make a rational decision to commit a crime. These rights are: the right to life. The classical school was the established ideas of monarchs, fedual lords and the fathers of the church. According to Williams and McShane 2009, the Classical School was uninterested in studying the criminal per se; it gained its association… famous one, however he made several incomplete ones. This paper will first analyze the origins of the classical school of criminology, as well as, its response to previous perspectives. The dominance of religion in State activities was the chief characteristic of that time. With the establishment of laws.
Either way, the Classical School of Criminology encourages fairness and better use of the criminal justice system in order to reduce crime and deter criminal activity. It goes to the credit of Beccaria who denounced the earlier concepts of crime and criminals which were based on religious fallacies and myths and shifted emphasis on the need for concentrating on the personality of an offender in order to determine his guilt and punishment. Classical school of criminology is an important theory in the framework of criminal behavior. He argued that if the punishment was more excessive than the crime it would be an abuse of power by the state and it would also create more crime. Deriving from the Rational Choice Theory, the classical theory of criminology states that rational behavior can be controlled in order to deter criminal activity. There was a general belief that man by nature is simple and his actions are controlled by some super power.
Which brings us to the philosophical approached of classical school… address the root causes of crime is the current strategy. According to the theory, crime was believed to be an activity engaged or committed out of free will and that criminals weighed their actions consequences. The two schools believe that the most serious crimes can only be perpetrated by people who are atavistic or primitive, or people who failed to change into a civilized and fully human state. This in other words meant that punishment was to be awarded keeping in view the pleasure derived by the criminal from the crime and the pain caused to the victim from it. Ethical or appraising hedonism claims that lone pleasance has worth or value and merely hurting or displeasure has disvalue or the antonym of worth.
As Donald Taft rightly put it, this doctrine implied the notion of causation in terms of free choice to commit crime by rational man seeking pleasure and avoiding pain. They therefore, stressed on the need for a Criminal Code in France, Germany and Italy to systematize punishment for forbidden acts. However, the greatest achievement of this school of criminology lies in the fact that it suggested a substantial criminal policy which was easy to administer without resort to the imposition of arbitrary punishment. In the 1800s the classical school was eroding due to the development of the Positive School of Criminology. All attempts are therefore made to ensure that the offender learns from his punishment and rehabilitates to become a productive member of our society.
As a believer of utilitarianism, he felt that people have to right to happiness and as a result should lead happy lives. Here following is a discussion on three 3 of the concepts Hedonism, Death Penalty and Deterrence as introduced by the Classical School but with particular attention paid to how these concepts form a part of modern day Criminology and how the current concepts can be improved upon in South African Law. The philosophy of criminology has been an influence since ancient times and has slowly developed into a professional and more advanced line of criminalistics studies. His famous work Essays on Crimes and Punishment received wide acclamation all over Europe and gave a fillip to a new criminological thinking in the contemporary west. The changes that were slowly brought about are strongly linked with the roots of modern criminal schools.
Especially in America, society, and social institutions, social factors shape the individual and possible deviant behavior. Cesare Beccaria is considered to be the classical theory founder. Beccaria's views provided a background for the subsequent criminologists to come out with a rationalized theory of crime causation which eventually led the foundation of the modem criminology and penology. In fact, many feel that it is a price to pay for globalization. The first step to compare these theories is to develop an understanding of them. The society looks at the discriminatory intervention of certain high-profile citizens.
Death Penalty Hedonism The concept of Hedonism is grounded in several scientific fields of study. This school of thought presumes that criminal behaviour is caused by social and psychological factors that make some individuals more inclined towards criminality than others. Gallows where 3500 were hanged declared a national, monument in South Africa, Daily Mail. What were some forerunners of classical thought in criminology?. The classical theory of Beccaria and others is what our constitution was based upon so as you can see, it has great significance to our society. The value of their proposals is proven by the figure of states that have entrenched in their fundamental laws many of the alterations advocated by the authors of the Classical School.