Describe the rules forbidding Mongol interaction with the Chinese. He is responsible for much of the knowledge exchanged between Europe and China during this time period. · The city-states lost independence after the Fatimid dynasty was established in Tunisia. It originated most probably in China and spread because of the vast trade routes of the Mongol Empire. The Umayyad and Early Abbasid Caliphates, 661-850 · The Umayyad caliphs ruled from Damascus, and their armies were mainly Arab Muslims.
Agriculture and industry both rose in productivity during this time period. The inconvenience caused by such a device, though not particularly important on long caravan drives had dangerous implications when it came to using camels in warfare. · Saladin seized power, unified Egypt and Syria, and recaptured Jerusalem. Series of peasant revolts also broke out. It was founded by the Tuareg as a seasonal camp sometime after 1000.
Imperialism and Nation-State Formation Key Concept 5. He made numerous trips to China and returned to Europe to write of his journeys. The Silk Roads correlation with the rise and fall of empires can be seen in the Sasanid Empire in Iran. · The rise of a class of religious scholars ulama worked against permanent division of the umma. The Mongols united a divided China. How did Mongol rule destroy Persian and Iraqi agriculture? · Umayyad Spain developed a unique culture, combining the traditions of several peoples. A number of Mongols also turned to farming, abandoning their nomadic ways.
Mongols were forbidden to marry ethnic Chinese, and only women from nomadic families were selected for the imperial harem. The Mongols were never driven out of Persia, it was just that their Turkic allies disappeared and assimilated into Persian society. · The mountains and plateaus of Iran formed the Sasanid hinterlands which were ruled by cousins of the king shah. Along with innovations such as bills of exchange, or bank drafts, and credit, the rise of banking houses supported the development of interregional trade in luxury goods. Also, powerful states in Mesoamerica and the Andean Region emerged in the Americas.
Politics and Society · Ardashir defeated the Parthians around 224 and established the Sasanid Empire. · Schools and law courts were religious, relying on priests, monks, and mobads as moral guides. · Mecca was settled by the Quraysh in the fifth century, and they assumed control of trade. · Law guaranteed daughters a share of inheritance equal to half of that given to a son, this remained their property to sell or keep. Marco Polo followed the route on his journey to Cathay. The Arabian Peninsula Before Muhammad · Most Arab peoples lived as farmers rather than nomads.
In order to effectively control China the Mongols had to accommodate the citizens by adapting parts of their culture and ways of governing. They were helpful to the majority of the population during this time period. They would also use the conquered people as human shields at times before mutilating those who fought against them which would strike fear in all other tribes. Also during this time period, Muhammad promoted the monotheistic religion Islam, which spread quickly through trade and other methods. · Science and technology flourished, doctors and astronomers developing theories more advanced than Europeans. · The pastoralists in the desert between Syria and Mesopotamia provided camels and guides, and worked as merchants and organizers of caravans. He became famous for his 17 year trip to India and back.
The Rise and Fall of the Caliphate, 632-1258 A. The in-migration of nomadic Mongols, together with their immense herds of sheep and goats, turned much agricultural land into pasture and sometimes into desert. How did Mongol rule in Persia differ from that in China? These had been incorporated into Chinese culture - Mainly women would wear clothing made out of silk and they would also weave cotton, making this one of the roles of women during this time period. The Arabs used the Berbers and enlisted them to conquer Spain and this was primarily the reason on Islamic expansion to North Africa. These networks were mainly sustained by pastoral or nomadic groups.
Middle East lost one third of its population. The Sasanid Empire, 224-651 A. Aztecs claimed ties to this earlier civilization. S provoking and actually being the only country to use them has made Mongol massacres look easy. Because of the recent wars and genocides occurring in the world, Mongols are not as harshly viewed as they were. There were innovations in transportation, state policies, and mercantile practices.
How has the image of pastoral peoples changed among historians? Innovations in transportation, state policies, and mercantile practices contributed to the expansion and development of commercial networks, which in turn served as conduits for cultural, technological, and biological diffusion within and between various societies. The Inca had this, but they called it Mit'a 82 8205978121 Mit'a Andean labor system based on shared obligations to help kinsmen and work on behalf of the ruler and religious organizations. As for most pack animals constructing a saddle was the preferred method of facilitating effective packing. Why did the Mongols have minimal cultural impact on the peoples they conquered? China, Europe, and the Middle East were densely populated so the areas were more vulnerable. Social and gender structures evolved in response to these changes. Women and Islam · Women in rural areas worked in fields and tended animals; those in urban areas lived in seclusion and could not go out without covering themselves. It was carried by rodents and fleas and transmitted to humans.